There are various methods to produce graphene materials, such as mechanical exfoliation of graphite, liquid-phase exfoliation and reduction of graphene oxide (GO), each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a method of producing graphene that has attracted much attention in the last decade and despite several shortcomings, is considered a leading approach to manufacture graphene, especially for applications like high-performance electronics and sensors, as it can yield high quality graphene sheets with a low defect count and good uniformity.

The CVD process

Generally speaking, the CVD method is based on gaseous reactants that are deposited on a substrate. The graphene is grown on a metallic surface like Cu, Pt or Ir, after which it can be separated from the metal and transferred to specifically-required substrates. When the gases contact the substrate inside the heated reaction chamber, a reaction occurs that creates a film of material on the substrate. The process can be simply explained as carbon-bearing gases that react at high temperatures (900–1100 °C) in the presence of a metal catalyst, which serves both as a catalyst for the decomposition of the carbon species and as a surface for the nucleation of the graphene lattice.

As was mentioned before, conditions like temperature, pressure, duration of time and many more can have a significant influence on the process and so must be carefully monitored.

Advantages and disadvantages

CVD can yield high quality graphene, with common characteristics that may include high homogeneity, imperviousness, high purity, fine grains, good control over layer number and more. However, CVD also comes with several disadvantages - namely a relatively high price of the equipment, toxic gaseous by-products and, as stated before, it is a rather sensitive process that is easily influenced by parameter changes. It is important to note that while CVD is a rather expensive method compared to other methods to produce lower-quality graphene, it is still probably the best way (to date) to acquire high quality graphene, since other ways to do that are even more expensive or complicated.



In addition, the separation (or exfoliation) of graphene from the substrate is known as challenging and it is tricky to accomplish without damaging the structure of the graphene or affecting the properties of the material. Another harrowing task is the creation of a uniform layer of graphene on a substrate, something that is continuously proving to not be easy at all.

Some approaches were and are still being developed to overcome this issue, like modifying the concentration of gases and incorporating spin coating methods, but this remains a challenge. However, despite these challenges, it is important to note that CVD is widely considered as an important and promising method to produce graphene, which is already in use, and will probably be even more so in the future, once further advancements are made. It is noteworthy that CVD is already a dominant manufacturing route for many other nanomaterials, and will assumably be in extremely common use once progress is made to resolve the issues that are currently hindering its acceptance.

Market status

While using the CVD method to produce graphene is definitely one the leading approaches in the world, it is still hindered by the challenges mentioned above. Thus, it is currently mostly limited to relatively small volumes and mainly restricted to R&D and academic uses.

However, graphene sheets produced via CVD methods are used in several applications like sensors, touch screens and heating elements. It is believed that once better answers are found to the questions of price and handling of CVD graphene, many more applications will start to appear.

Looking to buy CVD graphene sheets?

If you are interested in buying CVD graphene sheets, check out the Graphene Catalog that lists various CVD produced graphene sheets from several producers.

The latest CVD graphene news:

Introducing: The CVD Graphene Market Report

Graphene-Info is proud to present our new market report, The CVD Graphene Market Report. This market report, brought to you by the world's leading graphene industry experts, is a comprehensive guide to CVD graphene materials, the current industry and market status, and the promising applications in optoelectronics, bio-sensors, thermal solutions and more.

Reading this report, you'll learn all about:

  • How does CVD graphene differ from other graphene types
  • CVD graphene properties
  • Possible applications for CVD graphene
  • Available materials on the market

The report also provides a list of prominent CVD graphene research activities, a list of all CVD graphene developers and their products, datasheets and brochures from over 10 different CVD graphene makers and more.

Read the full story Posted: Mar 24,2021

Graphene Square prepares for IPO and aims for mass production of CVD graphene

Graphene Square logoSouth Korea-based Graphene Square, developer and distributor of graphene materials and films, has announced that it is preparing for an IPO to fuel global expansion. It will select the underwriter this year and plans its Kosdaq listing in 2022 through the Technology Special Listing program, a system introduced in 2005 to allow promising startups to list the local bourse based on a technology evaluation conducted by Korea Exchange-designated institutions.

Graphene Square’s competitive edge is said to be found in its proprietary chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method used for the production of graphene. The method is based on the research of Professor Hong Byung-hee of Seoul National University on the synthesis of large-area graphene. In fact, Graphene Square itself was established in 2012 as a spin-off of chemistry professor Hong Byung-hee’s lab at Seoul National University.

Read the full story Posted: Mar 07,2021

An interview with planarTECH's CEO to discuss the company's future roadmap and plans

UK-based planarTECH has concluded a successful equity crowdfunding campaign in 2020, as part of Graphene-Info's Graphene Crowdfunding Arena. We posted a post-campaign interview with the company's CEO, J. Patrick Frantz back in June 2020. We thought it was time to get an update as things are moving fast for the company.

Patrick Frantz - planarTECH's CEO with the graphene face mask

Hello Patrick! It's been over half a year since you concluded the successful crowdfunding campaign. What are your thoughts now regarding the process and the campaign?

The crowdfunding was definitely an interesting experience and we’re glad we did it. It is hard for us to say if our experience was normal or not due to our campaign being launched at the beginning of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. In the end, however, we did reach our stated goal, though we didn’t get quite enough funding to do the things we really want to do. As a result, we're still considering bringing on new investment, and for this round we are looking at more traditional fundraising methods (strategic partners, etc.).

Read the full story Posted: Jan 18,2021

A graphene industry, market and new conference series interview with Dr. Khasha Ghaffarzadeh

Our friend Dr. Khasha Ghaffarzadeh, a well respected graphene market analyst, is launching a new service called TechBlick that is a subscription-based online and all-year round event focused on advanced materials such as graphene, 2D materials, CNTs, boron nitrides, QDs, and more.

Graphene-Info partnered with TechBlick, to provide our readers an exclusive 25% discount on the TechBlick subscription. We took advantage of this launch to discuss the graphene market and industry with Dr. Ghaffarzadeh and also discuss the new service.

Hello Kasha. How do you see the graphene market shaping up in 2021?

I have closely followed and examined the graphene industry for a full decade. The landscape has certainly changed. Many companies have come and gone, and many once considered revolutionary applications are now ruled out, but overall, the industry is now at a tipping point.

We think 2021/2022 will be a turning point, setting the industry on its growth path, despite the delays caused these past 12 months due to Covid. For some, these delays have been painful as projects were pushed back or partners or customers dropped graphene to focus on other core areas. Many undershot their growth expectations, and some had difficult cash flow situations.

Read the full story Posted: Jan 12,2021

An interview with GraphAudio's CEO to discuss the company's CVD graphene-based speaker technology

GraphAudio was established in 2016 to commercialize graphene-based acoustic products based on technology that originated from UC Berkeley and Berkeley Lab. GraphAudio's technology enables electrostatic micro transducers that use CVD graphene sheets.

GraphAudio graphene transducer photo

GraphAudio's CEO is Ramesh G. Ramchandani, that previously held executive leadership positions at International Rectifier, Semicoa, nPlay Technologies, ZiLOG and ON Semiconductor, and was a senior advisor for consumer and commercial AI at Google X. Following is an interview with Ramesh to discuss GraphAudio's technology, business and roadmap.

Read the full story Posted: Jan 03,2021

AIXTRON's new graphene and hBN industrial grade reactor goes into operation

AIXTRON has developed, built and installed a new, specific industrial grade reactor for graphene and hexagonal Boron Nitride (hBN) processing on 200 mm epi-wafers. The new CVD tool was developed as part of the GIMMIK research project and has recently gone into operation.

The GIMMIK project aims to evaluate the production of graphene layers under industrial conditions, spotting weak points and designing ways of eliminating the sources of error. Furthermore, the transfer of the properties of graphene to electrical components by integration into a material environment are to be tested. In parallel, methods for the large-area, contact-free characterization of graphene will be developed, which do not yet exist at present. The GIMMIK research project aims to expand graphene technology for electronic components and to bring it up to a production-relevant level. Participants of the GIMMIK project include: AIXTRON SE, Infineon Technologies, IHP GmbH - Leibniz-Institut für innovative Mikroelektronik, Protemics, LayTec, RWTH Aachen.

Read the full story Posted: Dec 22,2020

An interview with the CEO of graphene developer planarTECH

UK-based planarTECH has recently concluded a successful equity crowdfunding campaign, as part of Graphene-Info's Graphene Crowdfunding Arena. The company's CEO, J. Patrick Frantz, was kind enough to answer a few questions we had and give his advice for graphene companies that consider the equity crowdfunding option.

planarTECH installed system Patrick Franz

Thank you for this interview. You have recently concluded a successful graphene crowdfunding campaign. Well done. Can you summarize this experience for us?

Well, given the current situation with COVID-19, it was certainly an emotional rollercoaster ride to get through the crowdfunding. If I recall correctly, we launched the campaign in private live mode in January as the pandemic started to unfold. We stayed in private mode for a while but finally went public" in March as the crisis was reaching its most severe point in Europe.

Read the full story Posted: Jun 17,2020

Researchers demonstrate the laser-propulsion of graphene sails in microgravity

ESA-backed researchers from Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands and SCALE Nanotech in Estonia have demonstrated the laser-propulsion of graphene sails in microgravity.

As demonstrated first by JAXA's mission IKAROS (2010) and recently by The Planetary Society's LightSail 2 (2019), using light sails as propulsion system is among the most promising ideas to enable fast and affordable space trips. Not only sails do not require fuel to move, but they save its corresponding costly weight and that of its containing tanks.

Read the full story Posted: May 13,2020

planarTECH's graphene crowdfunding campaign reaches 100%, investors are still welcome to participate

UK-based planarTECH has recently launched an equity crowdfunding campaign on Seedrs, as part of Graphene-Info's Graphene Crowdfunding Arena. We are happy to announce that the campaign reached 100% funding today. You can still take part in this exciting campaign, as PlanarTECH still accepts new investors via Seedrs.

PlanarTECH supplies Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) systems for the growth of graphene, and has already installed over 65 systems worldwide, to customers such as the University of Manchester, the University of Cambridge, Stanford University and the National University Singapore.

Read the full story Posted: May 12,2020

Rolls-Royce to work with Verasrien and Manchester's GEIC on graphene-enhanced aerospace applications

It was recently reported that Rolls-Royce is to work with the University of Manchester’s Graphene Engineering Innovation Centre (GEIC) and its partner Versarien on the use of graphene and other 2D materials used in wiring for next-generation aerospace engine systems.

The initial program of work will use the state-of-the-art chemical vapor deposition (CVD) equipment located within the GEIC.

Read the full story Posted: Apr 23,2020