Researchers from the Michigan Technological University discovered that the addition of graphene augmented the conductivity of titanium dioxide, thus increasing the electricity production in a dye-sensitized solar cells by 52.4%. Graphene’s superior electrical conductivity enables it to function as bridges, thus speeding up electron transfer between the titanium dioxide and the photoelectrode.

The team also developed a low-cost, comparatively foolproof technique to synthesize titanium dioxide sheets embedded with the nanomaterial. The idea is to first create a graphite oxide powder and then form a paste by mixing the powder with titanium dioxide. The paste is then applied over a substrate (glass for example) and baked at high temperatures.